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  • Writer's pictureLex Enrico Santí, LCSW, MFA

The Interconnection of Anxiety, Depression, and Genetic Utility Through Time

Author: Lex Enrico Santí, LCSW, MFA


Anxiety and depression, two of the most prevalent mental health conditions, are often perceived negatively due to their debilitating effects. However, a growing body of research suggests that these conditions may have evolutionary underpinnings that conferred survival advantages to our ancestors. This paper explores the interconnection between anxiety, depression, and their potential genetic utility, proposing that these mental health conditions have been shaped by natural selection and have played significant roles in human evolution.

Anxiety: An Evolutionary Perspective

Anxiety, characterized by excessive worry and fear, can be understood as an adaptive response to environmental threats. Evolutionarily, anxiety may have evolved to enhance vigilance and preparedness, thereby increasing an individual's chances of survival.

Nesse and Williams (1994) argue that anxiety can be seen as a defense mechanism that operates under the "Smoke Detector Principle." This principle suggests that it is better to have false alarms than to miss a real threat, much like a smoke detector that goes off at the slightest hint of smoke to ensure safety (Nesse & Williams, 1994, pp. 55-60). This heightened state of alertness would have been advantageous in environments where predators and other dangers were prevalent.

Research by Marks and Nesse (1994) supports this view, indicating that the physiological and psychological responses associated with anxiety, such as increased heart rate and hypervigilance, would have improved survival rates among early humans by preparing them to react quickly to threats (Marks & Nesse, 1994, pp. 253-254).

Depression: Adaptive Mechanisms

Depression, often characterized by persistent sadness and loss of interest, also has potential evolutionary explanations. One theory posits that depressive symptoms may have evolved as a mechanism to conserve energy and promote social withdrawal during times of adversity, thereby reducing risk and conserving resources.

Hagen (2003) proposes that depression might have functioned as a bargaining tool in social contexts, signaling a need for help or eliciting support from others (Hagen, 2003, pp. 54-56). This social navigation hypothesis suggests that depressive symptoms could have facilitated social bonding and cooperation, which were crucial for survival in early human communities.

Moreover, Watson and Andrews (2002) suggest that depressive rumination, a common symptom of depression, may have served an adaptive purpose by enhancing problem-solving and analytical thinking during periods of social or environmental stress (Watson & Andrews, 2002, pp. 190-191).

Genetic Utility and Natural Selection

The persistence of anxiety and depression in the human population indicates that these traits have been maintained through natural selection. Genetic studies have identified several gene variants associated with these conditions that also correlate with beneficial traits. For instance, the 5-HTTLPR polymorphism in the serotonin transporter gene has been linked to increased anxiety sensitivity but also to enhanced social sensitivity and cooperation (Caspi et al., 2003, pp. 386-388).

A study published in Nature (2010) highlighted the complexity of the genetic basis for these conditions, identifying multiple genetic variants associated with anxiety and depression that also influence other traits related to survival and social functioning (Wray et al., 2010, pp. 667-673).

Furthermore, the GLAD Study (2019) represents one of the largest efforts to understand the genetic links to anxiety and depression. This study utilized online recruitment to gather data from a large cohort, providing valuable insights into how genetic risk profiles for these conditions manifest in diverse populations (Davies et al., 2019, pp. 25-28). The findings suggest that common genetic variants contributing to these conditions are associated with both individual vulnerabilities and adaptive traits that have persisted through human evolution.


Anxiety and depression, while often seen as purely pathological, may have deep evolutionary roots that provided our ancestors with significant survival advantages. These conditions likely enhanced vigilance, promoted social cooperation, and facilitated energy conservation during periods of stress. Understanding the genetic and evolutionary underpinnings of anxiety and depression not only sheds light on their prevalence in modern populations but also underscores the complex interplay between mental health and human evolution.


  • Caspi, A., Sugden, K., Moffitt, T. E., Taylor, A., Craig, I. W., Harrington, H., ... & Poulton, R. (2003). Influence of life stress on depression: moderation by a polymorphism in the 5-HTT gene. Science, 301(5631), 386-389.

  • Davies, M. R., Lewis, C. M., & Eley, T. C. (2019). The Genetic Links to Anxiety and Depression (GLAD) Study: Online recruitment into the largest recontactable study of depression and anxiety. Translational Psychiatry, 9(1), 25-28.

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  • Wray, N. R., Pergadia, M. L., Blackwood, D. H., Penninx, B. W., Gordon, S. D., Nyholt, D. R., ... & Sullivan, P. F. (2010). Genome-wide association study of major depressive disorder: new results, meta-analysis, and lessons learned. Nature Genetics, 42(7), 667-673.

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